Once again, the European Union publishes its Open Data Maturity Report, which assesses the situation of data openness in 32 countries of the continent. Among them, Spain is in the lead, a reason to be proud. We draw the most relevant conclusions from this report.Continue reading “Spain, the second leading European country in open data in 2019”
Public companies are an important part of the operation of society. In addition, for their own public nature they must be exemplary in terms of transparency. For this reason we believe it is appropriate to make a radiography of the most relevant aspects related to the transparency of these public companies.Continue reading “Transparency in public companies: highlights”
Open data is more than a fad, becoming a potentially very practical tool for everyone. In what aspects is the world changing by the open data and how is it possible to measure its scope and influence? We analyze it below.
The transformation capacity of society that has open data is reflected in all its facets. Public entities and companies, private companies and citizens can take advantage of the value offered by the opening of data for a permanent social evolution in various ways.
In order to measure in some way the level of impact that open data initiatives have, experts have developed analyzes that set out the essential factors for this purpose. In the following lines we will study the degree of influence of open data in our society, but not before stopping to study their current situation.
Status of open data
Before delving into the full potential of open data to establish a new panorama in society, let’s stop to visualize the current situation of data openness.
First, we can go to the Report on the Maturity of Open Data in Europe, prepared by Capgemini Invent for the European Open Data Portal. In this, 4 dimensions are measured: policies, portals, impact and quality.
The total maturity quantified by this study is 65%. If we disaggregate these results according to the aforementioned dimensions, we have policies with 82% maturity, portals with 63%, quality 62% and 50% impact.
As improvement measures, the report echoes the need to focus efforts on raising awareness of the relevance of open data and its reuse.
As a second source of information on the situation of open data, we have the Open Data Barometer, published by the World Wide Web Foundation, which focuses on the analysis of Open Data measures taken by the 30 governments that are fully committed in this aspect.
Among the positive aspects embodied in this study, it should be noted that two thirds of governments have made two-digit progress in more than five years and that more than one third has increased their rating by more than 50%.
Regarding the facets in which an improvement is needed, mention that less than 20% of the existing data sets are open. In addition, some countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States have taken steps backwards in the area of open data.
How the impact of open data is measured
To really know how open data is transforming our reality, we must establish certain parameters that serve to measure this impact. For this, it will be pertinent to resort to the GovLab analysis of the University of New York.
This analysis sets 5 useful factors to measure the level of impact of open data initiatives. These are: definition of the problem and demand, capacity and culture, governance, collaborations and risks.
Problem and demand definition
This requires an in-depth knowledge of the situation that gives rise to the need to create an open data initiative to solve it.
Here a detailed study of the users who are going to benefit from this initiative is required, as well as the causes that originate the need, the definition of the objectives, the way to address the problem and how the data will be audited.
Capacity and culture
Here the cultural, civil and institutional aspects that can be an impediment to the benefit of open data are considered.
At this level, aspects such as those related to software and hardware necessary for its development, human, economic and all kinds of resources, as well as variables related to the level of digital culture of the agents involved are considered.
This aspect includes actions such as performance evaluations and the risks associated with data privacy, default opening policies and free access to information, minimum quality requirements and responsiveness to changes that may occur between Users and their needs.
When we talk about collaborations we are referring to joint actions with institutions and individuals within the world of open data.
More specifically, for these collaborations we must take into account data managers, intermediaries, experts in the field of dealing with open data in particular, as well as many other agents in the open data field.
Finally, it is not negligible to contemplate everything related to the security of open data, to be more exact we can talk about what implies privacy, guaranteeing the anonymity and security of sensitive information.
In this section we must also mention as a risk those initiatives that open data that only seek to give a good image, without trying to offer greater benefits to society.
How are open data changing the world?
Continuing with the study of the GovLab of the University of New York, it reflects 4 essential aspects in which open data is changing the world: improving governments, empowering citizens, creating opportunities and solving public problems.
The improvement of governments
Here the greatest transparency, the reduction of corruption, the improvement of public services and the distribution of economic, human and material resources are considered.
With the opening of data, governments clearly face a public audit by citizens, which will require full transparency and legality in their actions.
On the other hand, the results presented thanks to open data initiatives make the needs of the population better known, so that the provision of services for their satisfaction will be much more accurate and proportionate.
Thanks to the free availability of the information that brings open data, to which we must add new forms of communication, we have a much better informed society.
This population can make decisions strongly based on information, as well as decide new ways of mobilizing socially.
Creation of opportunities
Proper management and understanding of open data opens the door to greater innovation and growth of business initiatives, as companies can dispose and reuse this data to develop and market new products and services.
All this leads to economic growth of the productive apparatus of the region, as well as higher employment rates.
Resolution of public problems
This greater resolution capacity by citizens and public management organizations is the result of the development of policies to evaluate social problems thanks to the study of data.
For example, open data is useful in the management of health crises or those produced by natural or environmental disasters.
As we have been able to verify, the opening of data for consultation and analysis opens up endless opportunities for all types of institutions and people. From Ogoov, with our open data module we want to provide a simple, attractive, scalable and affordable solution to facilitate the deployment of open data initiatives to entities.
It would be strange to find someone who has not heard about open data at this point, as well as related concepts, such as Linked Open Data. Its influence reaches a broad spectrum of fields, from administrative and government to many areas of the private sector.
This expansion of open data, as with many other aspects, causes its definition to be distorted, publishing with the open data label that does not meet the requirements established for it. What are these requirements? We describe them below.
How did it all begin?
To know the origin of the requirements to open data we have to go back to December 2007 and move to Sevastopol, in California. That was when during a meeting of the Open Government Working Group the 8 fundamental pillars that support the concept of open data was born.
Why was it so important to define what open data is? In addition to the conceptual confusion we have explained above, we must emphasize the importance of these data for the evolution of democracy and society in general.
This information made available to the public through the rise of the Internet allows everyone to participate actively in governance and, in addition, allows third parties to reuse this data to develop all kinds of tools with which to obtain an economic benefit and / or providing an integration of them into non-existent services and, with a global vision, contributes to a more advanced society.
What are the 8 basic principles of open data?
Once we have placed ourselves regarding your need and your applications, let’s analyse in depth the premises that, if fulfilled, allow you to name some data with the open category.
With this condition that urges that all information produced or collected by governments be available to the entire population, it is intended that it may make the best decisions for the general good and / or reuse them in the interest of themselves or third parties.
This availability will lead to an evolution in multiple social facets, such as the Smart Cities.
In addition, we can say that each of us has full right to know and reuse the content of the data that governments contain, since we have paid for them through our taxes.
One of the main impediments we can face when applying this first principle is the fact that much of this government information has not yet been digitized. Therefore, this conversion to reusable electronic format is pressing for administrations that are lagging behind in this regard.
The data is collected at the source, with the highest level of granularity, there are no aggregations or modifications.
This principle requires that for open data to be such, they must adopt three inescapable qualities:
- High level of detail
- Virgins, that is, they must not have suffered any screening or previous treatment. They must be presented exactly as they emerged from the primitive source.
- Their origin and the references they contain can be checked, so that anyone can verify their validity.
We understand that this principle bases its reason on objectivity and transparency, and that thanks to this second condition it is facilitated that the reuser of this information can process the non-cooked data as it suits him best.
The data will be made available as soon as necessary to preserve the value of the data.
5.- Processable by machines
The data is reasonably structured to allow automated processing.
When publishing data we must always include formats whose coding allows automatic processing. These formats must be properly documented and clarified.
This means that the publication of data in unstructured formats, such as free texts, PDF files or those of a graphic nature, such as JPG or PNG, should be avoided, and if they are exposed, they should.
6.- Non discriminatory
7.- Non owners
The data is available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control.
It is necessary that the published data are in an open format, in order to facilitate its free access to all, as well as its reuse. If there is a situation that proprietary data is cataloged, they must have their counterpart in an open format.
Therefore, files with extensions such as CSV, XML, SVG, etc. will have priority.
8.- Free of license
Are these principles fulfilled?
- Polítics: 82%.
- Impact: 50%.
- Gateways: 63%.
- Quality: 62%.
Data journalism has taken a giant step in recent years, benefiting from the legal and technological measures of data openness and transparency. What is the current panorama of this journalistic branch and what do the different entities do to facilitate it?
The journalistic specialty based on the collection and analysis of large amounts of data has its germ in the 60s, then using the limited technological resources they had.
It was at that time when communication professionals began to be aware of everything that could offer them to truthfully inform society and perform the work of social counter-power and auditors of the political powers that characterize the journalistic profession.
As it is easily deductible, data journalism has been exponentially enhanced with the popularization of the internet, the emergence of open data and new data processing technologies, such as Big Data.
At this point, we should ask ourselves in what situation is data journalism in Spain and if this current situation allows its development with absolute normality. We look for the answer to this question below.
Data journalism and transparency
One of the main issues that we must resolve is whether there are sufficient levels of transparency by Spanish public entities to be able to develop data journalism normally.
To draw valuable conclusions, the work done by Leonardo La-Rosa and Teresa Sandoval-Martín, from the Carlos III University, entitled The insufficiency of the Transparency Law for the exercise of data journalism in Spain, which tries to analyze the consequences of Law 19/2013 and the Spanish government’s transparency portal to data journalism, as well as the reaction of journalists to these initiatives. To this end, interviews were conducted with journalists from different media and a thorough investigation of the newspaper archive.
As a summary of the interviews, we can conclude that, as the title of the research indicates, the Transparency Law and the government’s transparency portal should help much more than it currently does in the exercise of data journalism and instead, in some cases, it even makes it difficult.
The interviewees point out that the deadlines defined by the law are not met, the requested information arriving too late, if it is not denied with relative ease. Their responses also reflect the fact that the data offered in the respective transparency portals lack practical utility for the development of their work.
Regarding the study of journalistic publications, 93 articles were analyzed, what most attracts attention is that only 9 news did not have any interested opinion as a source, such as political parties and institutions directly involved.
How Spanish journalists access public data?
One of the factors that are worth studying further is the modus operandi of journalists when accessing these public management data. For this, we will use the comparative study on access to public data by Spanish and Swedish journalists, entitled The Promise of the Transparency Culture.
To carry out this study, semi-structured interviews were used with ten journalists working in five Spanish and five Swedish news organizations. In addition, the results were supported by a survey of 96 Spanish and 84 Swedish data journalists that contained 17 questions on data and public data journalism.
The results reveal that 50% of Spanish journalists have requested information from public authorities several times, and almost a fifth of Spanish data journalists have never requested public information.
In reference to the main challenges of Spanish data journalists, the study highlights access to the data itself, statistical skills and public transparency. In addition, it highlights that the simplification of the process of access to public data does not meet expectations.
As in the study mentioned in the previous section, these interviewees also show their complaint about the slow delivery and the denials of certain information. They also put on the table a conflict between the Transparency Law and other laws that may have priority over the former.
Just take a look at the mainstream media to be aware that data journalism is reaching certain levels of prominence. Articles of various kinds, often accompanied by a significant amount of graphics and infographics attest to this trend.
That is why it is intended to make visible and encourage this discipline, as well as the professionals who exercise it. To this end, the professors of the Master in Innovation in Journalism of the Miguel Hernández University (UMH for its acronym in Spanish) of Elche have shaped the first list of professionals related to data journalism in Spain and Latin America, which has more than 300 members. This tool also aims to increase the interaction between these types of information professionals, so that synergies of high value for the sector originate.
As an example of the application of data journalism, we can highlight the Empty Spain Workshop, in which the Medialab-Prado data journalism group compiled the results of the work carried out on Empty Spain, a project that demonstrates the demographic evolution of the country from open data. From this data, various multidisciplinary groups developed information, applications and projects.
Some open data portals even reflect in some of its sections how the information they offer in the journalistic field affects, such as that of the city of Madrid, which shows a compilation of the published news that has been based on the different datasets offered by said portal.
In short, in response to the question that gives title to this article, we can say that data journalism of course is possible in Spain, as evidenced by the greater presence of works related to the study of data and the various related initiatives.
The blame for this growth in data journalism is open data portals. Providing added value to those who facilitate the analysis of published data presented clearly through tables, graphs and/or maps, which facilitates and streamlines the work of the communication professional and subsequent understanding by the citizens. An example of this can be found in OGoov, the Platform that allows the display of Open Data Portals developed by Viafirma.
However, there is ample room for improvement, especially by public institutions and certain reluctance to provide the requested information, as well as the slow bureaucratic procedures to obtain such information and the lack of truly interesting content in Open data catalogs. Defects must begin to settle as soon as possible.
Open Government initiatives have to reach all the ranks of the public sector, from the state, to the local and provincial, through the autonomous. What role do provincial entities play in this regard, such as councils, assemblies and island councils? We respond to this below.
As we well know, the concept of Open Government is based on 3 fundamental pillars, Transparency, Open Data and Citizen Participation. From the Spanish Administration and for several years, it is committed to provide the governing organizations with guidelines and recommendations that facilitate this approach to citizenship.
Perhaps the clearest proof of this is the drafting by the Ministry of Territorial Policy and Public Function of the Open Government Plan, which is already in its third edition. Throughout its different updates, this plan has focused its actions on:
- Strengthen participation and dialogue mechanisms with civil society. For this, Open Government actions must respond to the true needs of citizens.
- Ensure cooperation between the different levels of Administration (state, regional and local).
- Strengthen the foundations of Open Government and lay the foundations that allow the adoption of actions that go beyond the plan itself.
- Define a new participatory strategy for Open Data based on both transparency and the reuse and strengthening of active advertising.
Of the facets on which the concept of Open Government is based, it is in the Open Data where Spain stands out notably. Spain is in a privileged place, as evidenced by its more than 23,800 catalogs and 295 initiatives, which, according to the Open Data Portal datos.gob.es, are distributed as follows:
- 43 states.
- 18 autonomous.
- 224 locals.
- 10 of universities.
At European level, Spain is second only to Ireland in this area. Being a reference in open data has positive consequences on its economy, as reflected in the report of the infomediary sector in Spain made by ASEDIE (Multisectoral Information Association). This says that there are 662 companies whose central activity is the reuse of data, which accumulate a turnover of 1,700 million euros and that employ 19,347 people.
Regarding the situation of Spain in terms of citizen participation, according to the study on E-Government 2018 of the United Nations we are in the eighth worldwide, surpassed by Denmark, Finland, South Korea, the Netherlands, Australia, Japan and New Zealand.
Nor should we leave behind everything related to the transparency of the information that public administrations bring to light. If we attend to the report published by the Spanish Transparency Portal, from December 2014 to November 2018, a total of more than 12 million pages of said portal were visited, showing an upward trend. In addition, the transparency survey prepared by the Transparency and Good Governance Council expresses the recognition and confidence of the citizens of the information published in the respective transparency portals.
Situation of the Open Government at the municipal level, of provincial councils, assemblies and island councils
Let us refine the vision a little more and focus on a more local and provincial area. Throughout this situation analysis we will take a prior look at the state of Open Government at the local level, which will serve as an introduction and whose conclusions may in some cases be extrapolated to the analysis of the panorama in councils, assemblies and island councils.
First, we will pay attention to the Evaluation of Open Government Portals in Spain presented during the III Congress of Smart Cities. In it, an analysis of the Open Government websites of 63 Spanish cities is carried out, all of them with more than 200,000 inhabitants, drawing the following general conclusions:
- Open data portals are not developed in a homogeneous way.
- The different levels of public administration are not coordinated in their Open Government strategies.
- There are many initiatives that should serve as an example for the development of others.
Of all the entities analyzed in this report, the Open Data portals of the cities of Valencia, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Seville and Santander stand out, which all have the solution offered by OGoov for the display of these portals.
Finally, this study offers certain recommendations for improvement, such as standardizing strategies, that open data is really open, standardized, interoperable, linkable, readable and accessible, carry out campaigns to promote citizen participation, create a set of indicators for monitoring open data, as well as a scoreboard that allows a better visualization of the most relevant data.
Paying attention to the Provincial Councils, Dyntra, a collaborative platform created to assess the situation of levels of transparency in governments and administrations, among other organizations, is of great interest.
To rate the different initiatives, indexes are created by researchers, social actors and the Public Administrations themselves. Based on these indices, transparency classifications of the organisms studied are developed.
In the case of provincial, regional and town councils, the Dyntra ranking is headed today by the Provinces of Orense, Granada, Malaga, Guipúzcoa and Barcelona.
The Dyntra website also offers us the option to filter the results by provincial councils (Guipúzcoa, Álava and Vizcaya), island councils (Canary Islands) or island assemblies (Balearic Islands). Note that this classification also reflects some open data indicators, but in a very low proportion if we compare them with those of transparency.
Finally, we must mention the Transparency Index of the Provinces (INDIP, by its acronym in Spanish), prepared by the non-governmental organization Transparency International.
This evaluates 6 areas of transparency: information on the Provincial Council, relations with citizens and society, economic-financial transparency, transparency in the Contracting of services, transparency in services and support to municipalities and indicators of the Transparency Law.
The latest INDIP published dates from 2015 and it measured 80 indicators of 45 provincial councils, assemblies and island councils, which obtained an average score of 81.7%. According to this report, the leading Deputations were those of Huelva, Palencia, Tarragona, Valladolid and Vizcaya.
Although it is a study that may be somewhat obsolete, comparing it with the previous ones can serve to give us an idea of how it has evolved in terms of transparency by these organizations.
Local and provincial Open Government initiatives
Once we have reviewed the current situation of Open Government in public entities, paying special attention at the local and, above all, provincial level, it is time to focus our attention on those most notable projects and initiatives.
On the one hand we have the Aporta program, developed by the Ministry of Economy and Business, the Ministry of Territorial Policy and Public Function and the Public Business Entity Red.es. Its objective is to promote the opening of public information and the development of advanced data-based services.
The activity of the Aporta program is based on 7 lines of action:
- Awareness and communication.
- Statistical analysis of open data initiatives.
- Regulation to achieve an optimal legislative framework.
- National cooperation.
- International cooperation.
- National catalog hosted on datos.gob.es.
- Support for innovation.
At the local level, we can highlight the actions undertaken by the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (SFMP). This interprovincial institution has recently published the document Open Data FEMP 2019: 40 data sets to be published by Local Entities, an update of the text prepared in 2017, with which the original document has been extended by 20 data sets.
With the preparation of this report, recommendations and methods are offered to facilitate the opening of data, explaining aspects such as laws, governance model or how an open data portal should be structured.
It contains tabs for each data set with advice on update frequency, forms of visual representation, reuse value or complexity level. All this with the aim of facilitating reuse and interoperability of public sector data.
This document also reveals the 40 data sets considered by their authors as the most interesting and simple to publish by local administrations.
If we look at the scope of the provincial councils, our participation in the Open Data Portal of the Diputación de Cádiz is remarkable, where we had to migrate the data to a new platform that complied with the regulations regarding the Reuse of Information of the Public Sector (RIPS) and its Technical Interoperability Standard (TIS). This project was awarded as the best Open Government project at the National Congress of Innovation and Public Services (NCIPS) 2017.
We can also talk about the recent project developed for the Provincial Council of Seville. Through it, both the open data portal of the Provincial Council will be launched soon, as well as those of the municipalities that wish to join the initiative.
We must not leave behind the fact that provincial councils have also focused on activities aimed at raising public awareness of elements of Open Government, such as citizen participation. Without going any further, the Diputación de Cádiz itself has launched projects such as the School of Citizenship, consisting of several courses and workshops aimed at training the general public.
The construction of a society in constant progress and improvement involves the creation of a culture that encourages data openness, transparency and citizen participation. Governments must not only focus their efforts on information of a social and economic nature, but must also opt for those of another type that help different organizations, public and private, to make decisions.
Local and provincial public entities, such as municipalities, councils, assemblies and island councils, must act as a catalyst of this change. Change in which we are immersed as demonstrated by various initiatives. Despite this, the room for improvement is wide, with much work to be done to achieve an excellent level of Open Government.