What is the corruption level of both Spain and the rest of the world? The Corruption Perception Index was developed to define the level of corruption of a country, results which we will discuss in this article.
This Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is a measure taken by Transparency International in its attempt to bring together civil society, private companies and public entities to fight against corruption at every level.
With respect to Transparency International Spain, besides this CPI, it has also implemented measures such as creating a commission on both legal and social measures against corruption, and has prepared the following texts:
Transparency International released the new edition of their Corruption Perception Index at the beginning of 2020. Below we will analyze the methodology implemented, as well as the results obtaine with an eye on the current situation in Spain.
Methodology of CPI
The Corruption Perception Index is built following 4 steps, which are:
- Data source selection
- Standardizing the above-mentioned sources
- Calculating the average score
- Reporting the margin of error
1- Selecting data sources
For the information to be considered when building the Index, the following requirements must be met:
- To quantify the perception of corruption in the public sector
- Make use of a valid and reliable methodology
- The source must come from a recognized and prestigious entity
- Allow the distinction between countries when evaluating
- To take into account a significant number of countries
- Only consider the opinions of experts or entrepreneurs
- To be kept up to date on a regular basis
2- Standarize information sources
Through a number of calculations and statistical techniques, which we will not go into in detail as they are not the aim of this article, we can standardize the results of each source, which allows us to compare the results with previous years, since the methodology has slightly changed in this edition.
3. – Calculation of the average score
For the information to be included in the report, a country must submit at least 3 sources that meet the requirements described in step one. To be included in this report, a country must submit at least 3 sources of information that meet the requirements described in step one. The arithmetic mean of the standardized scores of each source will be then be calculated and rounded up to a whole number.
4. – Reporting the margin of error
As with all measurements that meet scientific criteria, this Corruption Perception Index is subject to uncertainty. This deviation must be calculated based on deviations retrieved from sources used to build the Index.
Before dealing with the Spanish scenario, it is also worth being aware of the global scenario, as well as the situation in other EU countries.
180 countries around the world were evaluated and obtained an average score of 43 out of 100. Moreover, two thirds of the countries scored below 50, suggesting that there is still room for improvement on political corruption.
Top-ranked countries are:
- Denmark: 87
- New Zealand: 87
- Finland: 86
- Singapore: 85
- Sweden: 85
- Switzerland: 85
On the other hand, at the bottom of this list you have:
- Somalia: 9
- South Sudan: 12
- Syria: 13
- Yemen: 15
- Venezuela: 16
This tendency pinpoints that 22 countries have significantly improved their scores, whereas the numbers of 21 countries have gone down.
Results in the EU and Western Europe
The average rating of the 20 countries that were assessed from this area is 66 out of 100:
- Denmark: 87
- Finland: 86
- Sweden: 85
- Switzerland: 85
At the end of the list we have:
- Bulgaria: 43
- Romania: 44
- Hungary: 44
If we look at the evolution of the results in recent years, we can see a significant improvement in Italy and Greece, increasing their scores by 11 and 12 points, respectively.
Results in Spain
Once grasped the idea both globally and in Europe regarding overall scores, it is time to analyze the situation in Spain with regard to the perception of corruption.
Our country is placed 30th, scoring 62 points out of 100, same as Portugal, Qatar and Barbados. At European level, we rank 13th, alongside Portugal. Spain has won 4 points in the last 2 years, as back then achieved a score of 58 in the 2018 CPI.
According to Transparency International conclusions, some recent political events have influenced the results in Spain, such as:
- Famous political convictions of corruption cases going public.
- The no-confidence motion that led to a new government due to the final ruling on a political scandal.
- No legislative changes have been made to keep fighting against corruption.
Transparency International Spain believes that the results are poor for a country like Spain (ranks fifteenth in the list of the world’s largest economies) and its CPI scores should not be below 70 points.
OGoov, our transparency module for open government solution shows in a tree structure the indexes of Transparency International, as well as other sources like Federación Española de Municipios y Provincias (FEMP) and regional legal frameworks on transparency.
In addition, in the case of the indicators of Transparency International Spain or those from the FEMP, the creation of this tree structure is carried out automatically, to then add on top documents and links to each indicator which can be made available in reusable formats thanks to the open data module, or even allowing to automate the collection process using RTOD.
We can conclude by saying that, although Spain has shown an improvement in its CPI results throughout 2019, unfortunately this is not enough and all agents involved must work harder to fight corruption, expecting even more growth in the 2021 edition. We will find out when the time approaches.